The museum library has more than 40,000 works about prehistoric archaeology, history, numismatics and ethnology. It is frequented by many regular visitors, starting with the staff of the Cantonal Archaeology Department who are preparing publications, as well as students from the University, scholars and amateurs.

The library's holdings are regularly added to and they benefit from exchanges thanks to the collection of the Cahiers d'archéologie romande (Notebooks of Archaeology in French-speaking Switzerland), which is managed at the MCAH, and the Revue historique vaudoise (Historical Journal of Vaud), which is published by the Société vaudoise d'histoire et d'archéologie (Vaud Society of History and Archaeology).

Online search is accessible on the interface of Renouvaud, the network of the libraries in Vaud.